Data Base Management System
Introduction- Database System Applications, Purpose of Database Systems, View of Data – Data Abstraction, Instances and Schemas, Data Models, Database Languages – DDL, DML, Database Access from Application Programs, Transaction Management, Data Storage and Querying,
Database Architecture, Database Users and Administrators.
ER diagrams: Beyond ER Design, Entities, Attributes and Entity sets, Relationships and Relationship sets, Additional features of ER Model, Conceptual Design with the ER Model, Conceptual Design for Large enterprises. Relational Model: Introduction to the Relational Model – Integrity Constraints over Relations, Enforcing Integrity constraints, Querying relational data, Introduction to Views –Destroying /altering Tables and Views.
Relational Algebra and Calculus: Relational Algebra – Selection and Projection, Set operations, Renaming, Joins, Division, Examples of Algebra Queries, Relational calculus – Tuple relational Calculus – Domain relational calculus – Expressive Power of Algebra and calculus. Form of Basic SQL Query – Examples of Basic SQL Queries, Introduction to Nested Queries, Correlated Nested Queries, Set – Comparison Operators, NULL values – Comparison using Null values – Logical connectives – AND, OR and NOT – Impact on SQL Constructs, Outer Joins, Disallowing NULL values.
Introduction to Schema Refinement – Problems Caused by redundancy, Decompositions – Problem related to decomposition, Functional Dependencies, Normal Forms – FIRST, SECOND, THIRD Normal forms – BCNF –Properties of Decompositions- Lossless join Decomposition, Dependency preserving Decomposition, Schema Refinement in Data base Design – Multi valued Dependencies – FOURTH Normal Form, Join Dependencies, FIFTH Normal form.
Transaction Management- Transaction Concept- Transaction State-Implementation of Atomicity and Durability Concurrent Executions Serializability-Recoverability Implementation of Isolation – Testing for Serializability Concurrency Control- Lock –Based Protocols – Timestamp Based Protocols Recovery System-Failure Classification-Storage Structure-Recovery and Atomicity – Log – Based Recovery.
Overview of Storage and Indexing: File Organization and Indexing – Clustered Indexes, Primary and Secondary Indexes, Index data Structures – Hash Based Indexing, Tree based Indexing, Comparison of File Organizations.
Tree Structured Indexing: Intuitions for tree Indexes, Indexed Sequential Access Methods (ISAM) B+ Trees: A Dynamic Index Structure, Search, Insert and Delete.
Hash Based Indexing: Static Hashing, Extendable hashing, Linear Hashing, Extendible vs. Linear Hashing.
1. Database System Concepts By Silberschatz−Korth−Sudarshan
2. Fundamentals of Database Systems by Elmasri & Navathe
Minimum Duplication and Redundancy
Because there are many users who use the database so chances of data duplicity are very high. As in database management system, data files are shared that in turns minimizes data duplication and redundancy. All the information in database management system occurs only once so chances of duplicity are very less.
Saves storage space and cost
All the Database management systems have a lot of data to save. But DBMS proper integration of data saves much more space. Companies are paying so much amount of money to store data. If they have managed data to save then it will saves their cost of saving data and data entry.
Anyone can work on it
Users who are not having any technical skills can work on database management system. The query language provided by DBMS is so easy to understand. If you want to update, insert, delete and search any record then it is very easy with the help of queries provided by DBMS. Any non programming user can do this with the help of any programmer.
Large database maintenance
Large databases of big companies can be maintained only by database management system. These databases require lots of security and other feature like backup and recovery. All these features are contained in DBMS. It can maintain a database with lots of data and information..